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Ground retention systems have become one of the most economical solutions for any kind of deep excavations. There have been many kinds of latest technologies of earth retention structures that are planned and constructed in a way to provide long lasting performance.
You will be surprised to know about the various methods of ground retention systems that companies are designing today.
Wall Support Systems
Slurry or Diaphragm Wall – Slurry wall refers to the wall construction under the ground with some slurry liquid. It is used for making stable side walls of the channel, so that it does not collapse during digging before it is filled with the material. Diaphragm wall is the same as slurry wall, but built for some kind of structural support.
Secant walls – These walls are made by drilling a line of overlapping straight bored piles to create a permanent wall. The secondary piles can be drilled in the side of the primary piles. Secant walls are also watertight.
Retaining walls – They are constructed from different materials and are used to hold background when there is varying grade elevation on both sides of the wall. They are mostly used in constructing highways and bridges.
Environmental cutoff walls – These kinds of walls are for holding back contaminated soil from flowing or moving over the wall. This method is useful for soil encapsulation, soil stabilization, soil treatment and cutoff walls.
Soil nailing – This kind of ground support system includes screwing, drilling, driving and grouting a line of steel bars in closed patterns behind the excavation boundary surface. It provides soil resistance against rotating sliding and lateral backgrounds in the soil.
Soil mixing – This technique involves drills, paddles, augers and mixing wheels that break the soil surface where cemented mixture has been injected. It increases the strength, impermeability and homogeneity of the soil.
Ground Support Systems
Any kind of intense excavation needs the ground to be laid back for stability and safety. In the absence of no space for lying back, some kind of earth support system is mandatory. Among the various kinds, sheeting is the most standard method that uses wood lagging and steel beams. It provides support to the ground around the excavation site for any number of bracing and anchors required at the site.
Ground anchors – This involves designing of anchors made of grouted bars or multiple stranded steel wires to counterbalance overturning and lateral forces on critical structures like dams, over bridges and others.
Top down construction – This method involves construction with the excavation of a basement in a building along with the construction of the building’s superstructure. This process is highly successful on projects with both a deep basement and a sky high construction.
Tunnel access shaft – This is a modern method that includes advanced Tunnel Boring Machines and is used for excavating a tunnel, where large machines are used for drilling vertically into the portal or mountain side. Tunnels can also be drilled below the ground using a vertical access pipe.
There are varieties of structural and earth support provided for marine constructions.
Underwater anchors – Companies offer a unique system of underwater anchoring, which eliminates the conventional and expensive method of installing seawalls in the front of the old ones to intensify the wharfs. Rather, it involves installing of horizontal anchors at the correct level. This allows a safe search for the required new depth.
Ground freezing – This process involves circulation of coolant through many pipes and converts soil water into ice, thus creating a strong water resistant material. This method provides support to the groundwater and soil during the construction of deep shafts.
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